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Gelombang Elektromagnetik

2009 December 23

Gelombang didefinisikan sebagai getaran atau gangguan yang merambat. Elektromagnetik adalah gejala listrik yang diakibatkan oleh gerak mekanik magnet. Magnet adalah benda yang dapat menghasilkan gaya tarik atau gaya tolak terhadap benda lain (yang mungkin juga bersifat magnet).

Pada dasarnya magnet adalah batu-batuan yang terdapat di daerah yang namanya Magnesia di sekitar Balkan atau Asia kecil. Yang konon ceritanya menempel di tongkat-tongkat penggembala.

Secara umum gelombang merambat memerlukan perantara, seperti permukaan air, udara, fluida, gas, tali, benang, kawat, dawai, dan lain-lain.

James C. Maxwell (1873)  kemudian mempresentasikan makalahnya di lembaga Royal Society Inggris mengenai kemunculan gelombang yang dapat merambat tanpa memerlukan penghantar.

Perambatan gelombang yang fenomenal ini berhasil dibuktikan oleh Rudolf Heinrich Hertz,

Gelombang elektromagnetik ini diciptakan oleh adanya keterkaitan antara medan listrik (electric field) dengan medan magnet (magnetic field) yang saling tegak lurus (perpendicular) dalam merambat. Kedua medan ini saling mempengaruhi dan saling menimbulkan keadaan yang berulang-ulang.

Artinya medan listrik-medan magnet-medan listrik-medan magnet … b egitu seterusnya.

Akibat percobaan Hertz, kita mengenal istilah nirkabel atau pengiriman paket-paket energi dalam medan listrik dan medan magnet tanpa menggunakan perantara atau disebutnya sebagai point to pint electric jumper. Yang kemudian dikenal dengan sebutan bluetooth.

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